Internal Corrosion

Causes

  • Contamination
    • Process e.g. carbon dioxide, water, acids & other chemicals
    • Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC)
  • Stress Corrosion Cracking
    • Chlorides, sulphides, alkali & nitrates
  • Chemical Embrittlement
    • Hydrogen assisted/induced or Liquid metal (mercury)

Incidents

DPC Enterprises (Festus) Toxic Release 2002
Isotec/Sigma Aldrich Explosion 2003
Honeywell Toxic Releases 2003
NDK Crystal Explosion 2009
Silver Eagle Refinery Explosion 2009
Tesoro (Anacortes) Refinery Explosion 2010
Chevron (Richmond) Fire 2012
Freedom Industries Toxic Release 2014
Loy Lange Box Co. Pressure Vessel Explosion 2017
Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refinery Explosion 2019

CCPS Process Safety Beacon

The Process Safety Beacon is a resource aimed at delivering process safety messages to plant operators and other manufacturing personnel.


European Process Safety Centre Learning Sheets

The EPSC Learning Sheets are meant to stimulate discussion on important process safety topics at operational sites, to improve competency & awareness in a pleasant format.


Media

Emergency Preparedness: Findings from CSB Accident Investigations
Falling Through the Cracks
Silver Eagle Refinery Explosion Surveillance Footage
Animation of Fire at Chevron’s Richmond Refinery, August 6, 2012
Freedom Industries Tank Dismantling
Preliminary Animation of Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refinery Fire and Explosions


Organisations, Standards & Guidance